International commission on stratigraphy

International commission on stratigraphy

The Quaternary ( / kwəˈtɜːrnəri, ˈkwɒtərnɛri / kwə-TUR-nə-ree, KWOT-ər-nerr-ee) is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). [4] It follows the Neogene Period and spans from 2.58 million years ago to the present. [5]The Quaternary ( / kwəˈtɜːrnəri, ˈkwɒtərnɛri / kwə-TUR-nə-ree, KWOT-ər-nerr-ee) is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). [4] It follows the Neogene Period and spans from 2.58 million years ago to the present. [5] Compilation of selected papers published on Permian topics in 2021. Stratigraphy. Biakov A.S., Zakharov Y.D., Horacek M. & Goryachev N.A. (2021). On the position of the Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian boundary in the North-East Russia according to radioisotopic and chemostratigraphic data.International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to develop a formal stratigraphical subdivision of the Holocene, with three new stages/ages, two underpinned by Global Boundary Strato-type Sections and Points (GSSPs in an ice core, and a third in a speleothem. These stages/ages are defined together with theirEmanuela Mattioli: Vice-Chair since 2016 (member since 2013); calcareous nannoplankton. Gregory Pienkowski: Vice-Chair since 2016 (member since 2013); multidisciplinary stratigraphy, sedimentology and palaeoecology. Website contacts: Angela Coe and David Kemp.INTERNATIONAL CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC CHART International Commission on Stratigraphy Colouring follows the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (www.ccgm.org) Chart drafted by K.M.Cohen,D.A.T.Harper,P.L.Gibbard,J.-X.Fan (c) International Commission on Stratigraphy, May 2021The Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) is charged with this task as a component body of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) which is itself a constituent body of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). Phenomena associated with the Anthropocene include: an order-of-magnitude increase in erosion and sediment transport ...Department of Geological Sciences, International Commission on Stratigraphy, California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, California 90840, USA (e-mail: [email protected])The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) sends its condolences to the families of the victims of the deadly earthquake that affected Turkey and the north of Syria, as well as other adjacent countries. Once more, nature sends a call on the importance of education on Geological Sciences to know and understand the activity in Earth ... We are pleased to announce a new, interactive, version of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart! Students and staff at the Geological Survey of Queensland and ...The proposal received unanimous support from all the voting members of the International Commission on Stratigraphy . It was then recommended to the International Union of Geological Sciences Executive Committee who also voted unanimously to ratify the proposal. The GSSP will be placed 1.25 ± 0.01 m below the base of Bed 36 in the foreshore at ...The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) is the largest and oldest constituent scientific body in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Its primary objective is to define precisely global units (systems, series and stages) of the …Definition: The base of the Wordian Stage is defined at 7.6m above the base of the Getaway Ledge outcrop Section of the Getaway Limestone Member of the Cherry Canyon Formation in Guadalupe Pass, Texas, U.S.A. It coincides with the first occurrence of conodont Jinogondolella aserrata in the transitional continuum from Jinogondolella nankingensis.An account is given of a Geologists' Association meeting in the Isle of Purbeck held on 28th-30th September 2012 and the stratigraphy and structures of the rocks examined during the weekend ...International Commission on Stratigraphy. Home; Executive; Subcommissions; Chart/Time Scale; GSSPs; Annual Reports; Stratigraphic Guide; Geobiodiversity Database ... Links; IGC 2020 at Delhi, India, 2-8 March 2020. The 36th International Geological Congress (IGC 2020 or 36IGC) will be organized in Delhi, India on 2-8 March, 2020. The congress ...When it comes to buying or selling a home, one of the most important decisions you’ll make is choosing a realtor. With so many options available, it can be difficult to determine which realtor will provide you with the best service and valu...International Meeting on the Ediacaran and Ediacaran-Cambrian Transition. Guadalupe, Extremadura, Spain - October 17-24, 2019. congress webpage abstracts entire conference volume. 3rd International Congress on Stratigraphy - STRATI 2019. Milan, Italy - July 2-5, 2019. congress webpage abstract volume (Cambrian part)Phanerozoic Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Neogene Paleogene Upper Lower Cre t Mesozoic aceous T riassic ...The Global Standard Stratotype section and Point (GSSP) of the Serravallian Stage: Ras il Pellegrin section, Malta. The Serravallian GSSP is defined at the formation boundary (i.e. at top of “transitional Bed”) between the Globigerina Limestone and Blue Clay Formation in the Ras il Pellegrin section (Malta).This discussion paper, by a Working Group of INTIMATE (Integration of ice-core, marine and terrestrial records) and the Subcommision on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), considers the prospects for a formal subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch.The ICS is encour- Objectives aging a global effort to transform the localized knowledge acquired by regional geological surveys and by generations of “Earth histori- The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) of IUGS is a ans” into a valuable public network to decipher the past. body of expert stratigraphers founded for the purpose ... Nevertheless, some question the types of evidence 8,9, because to define a geological time unit, formal criteria must be met 10,11.Global-scale changes must be recorded in geological stratigraphic ...1. Lithostratigraphy. The element of stratigraphy that deals with the description and nomenclature of the rocks of the Earth based on their lithology and their stratigraphic relations. 2. Lithostratigraphic classification. The organization of rock bodies into units on the basis of their lithologic properties and their stratigraphic relations.Stratotype (type section) The designated exposure of a named layered stratigraphic unit or of a stratigraphic boundary that serves as the standard of reference.A stratotype is the specific stratal sequence used for the definition and/or characterization of the stratigraphic unit or boundary being defined. 2. Unit-stratotype.stratigraphy.net - aims to provide free and open access to geoscientific information and data with special emphasis on the disciplines stratigraphy, paleontology and sedimentology. Nacstrat.org - website for the North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature. Stratigraphic Chart of Austria 2004. New Zealand Geological Timescale.The discipline of stratigraphy is the oldest in the Earth Sciences. It is a practical science continuously evolving new methods and techniques to explore and understand Earth history. Deciphering Earth's History: the Practice of Stratigraphy is beautifully illustrated and lucidly written by a large team of top-class experts. From the ...1. Lithostratigraphy. The element of stratigraphy that deals with the description and nomenclature of the rocks of the Earth based on their lithology and their stratigraphic relations. 2. Lithostratigraphic classification. The organization of rock bodies into units on the basis of their lithologic properties and their stratigraphic relations.May 21, 2019 · The AWG was established by the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, which in turn is part of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. Having decided to go ahead with the new epoch, the ... The International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy (ISJS) comprises an international group of scientists from universities, geological surveys, research organisations, industry and museums who conduct scientific research on strata of Jurassic age ( c. 201 – 143 million years ago). In order to advance the global understanding of the ...The IUGS International Commission on Stratigraphy is the body to which proposals for the designation of stratotypes of units of worldwide application are submitted. Stratotypes of local units require the approval from local or national surveys or stratigraphic commissions.... International Commission on Stratigraphy. Here it's reproduced in greyscale, but to see it in all its colourful glory, go to: www.stratigraphy.org/ICSchart ...When it comes to buying or selling a home, one of the most important decisions you’ll make is choosing the right real estate agent. Not only do you want someone who is knowledgeable and experienced, but you also want to ensure that their co...Graz (Austria) in 2015 and Milan (Italy) in 2019, the 4th International Congress on Stratigraphy has been assigned by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to Lille (France). We are thus pleased to invite you to attend STRATI 2023, at Lille, France, 11th-13th July 2023.International Commission on Stratigraphy: The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.The boundary section is immediately below and on either side of the iron steps. The boundary section comprises about 27m of strata which include the upper part of the angulata zone and the lower part of the bucklandi zone. This sequence, including the stage boundary, is entirely in Blue Lias facies. The sediments are fine-grained.The work will also assess the biogeographic and stratigraphic distribution of all species, provide a synthesis of all available stable isotope palaeobiological data, and will permit the construction of a species level phylogeny that aims to integrate fossil and molecular data.The International Commission on Stratigraphy named the most recent geologic age, often known as the topmost stage of the Quaternary, the Meghalayan age in 2018. Additionally, the Holocene era or series is divided into three higher, or most recent, subdivisions.International Commission on Stratigraphy. 1,892 likes · 4 talking about this. Home of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, the basis for the International Geologic Time SDefinition: The base of the Holocene Series/Epoch is defined in the NGRIP ice-core record at a depth of 1492.45m at the horizon which shows the clearest signal of climatic warming, an event that marks the end of the last cold episode (Younger Dryas Stadial/Greenland Stadial 1) …In June 2009, the Executive Committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formally ratified a proposal by the International Commission on Stratigraphy to lower the base of the ...Definition. The GSSP for the base of the Santonian Stage is defined at 94.4 m in the eastern border of the "Cantera de Margas" quarry, Olazagutia (Navarra, N. Spain: 42º 52′ 05.3″ N, 2º 11′ 40″ W) and marked by the first occurrence of the inoceramid bivalve Platyceramus undulatoplicatus.If the nearly two dozen voting members of the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG), a committee of scientists formed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), agree on a site, the ...A branch of geochronology that deals with the quantitative (numerical) measurement of geologic time. The abbreviations ka for thousand (103), Ma for million (106), and Ga for giga (109) years are used. Facies. The term “facies” originally meant the lateral change in lithologic aspect of a stratigraphic unit.About us. We unlock the potential of millions of people worldwide. Our assessments, publications and research spread knowledge, spark enquiry and aid understanding around the world.The 2015 Digby McLaren Medal awarded to Andrew Miall at Toronto, Canada. Andrew Miall is one of the most influential scientists in the fields of sedimentology, stratigraphy and basin analysis, with an extraordinarily prolific record of published work (~109 papers with 5898 cites). His original research articles, reviews and textbooks have ...The geological time scale is currently maintained by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), which is part of the International Union of Geological Sciences. The time scale is continuously being updated as we learn more about the timing and nature of past geological events. You can view the ICS time scale online.The International Commission on Stratigraphy now officially recognizes the Eoarchean Era as the first part of the Archaean Eon, preceded by the Hadean Eon, during which the Earth is believed to have been essentially molten. The Eoarchaean's lower boundary or starting point of 4 …The principles provided in the Guide are implemented by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), of which the ISSC is a member. As part of the ICS, the AWG adheres, in principle, to the guidelines advanced in the Guide to propose the ratification of a geologic time unit on the ...Online local and international death notices are actually big business. Newspapers and library archives offer access to Cleveland death notices, but it’s a little harder to find New Zealand death notices without heading out of the country.Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) are reference points on stratigraphic sections of rock which define the lower boundaries of stages on the …Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the ages of rock strata in relation to time.. The ultimate aim of chronostratigraphy is to arrange the sequence of deposition and the time of deposition of all rocks within a geological region, and eventually, the entire geologic record of the Earth.. The standard stratigraphic nomenclature is a chronostratigraphic system based on .... (c) International Commission on Stratigraphy, August 2012 Units of all ranks are in the process of being defined by Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Points (GSSP) for their lower boundaries, including those of the Archean and Proterozoic, long defined by Global Standard Stratigraphic Ages (GSSA). ChartsFor the longest time ever, venturing into stock trading was the most dreadful financial step you could take. Getting brokers with reasonable fees (let alone free trading) was almost impossible.Stratigraphic Guide; Geobiodiversity Database; Statutes & Guidelines; Prizes; Publications; Links; Revised ICS Statutes ratified by IUGS EC. The revised ICS statutes have been approved by ICS on 24 March 2017 and ratified by the IUGS Executive Committee on 25 April 2017. These statutes are based upon but also significantly revised from those ...International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) - Site Científico de ...In July, the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), part of the International Union of Geological Sciences, announced formal ratification of a new official division of the Holocene, including designation of the past 4200 years as the Meghalayan Age. The announcement appears to have come as a surprise to many—and has provoked some ...International Commission on Stratigraphy. Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy. Overall objectives of the Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy (SCS) and fit within IUGS science policy are: to establish a standard global stratigraphic subdivision and nomenclature for the Cretaceous, as part of the ICS standard global stratigraphic scale ...1. Lithostratigraphy. The element of stratigraphy that deals with the description and nomenclature of the rocks of the Earth based on their lithology and their stratigraphic relations. 2. Lithostratigraphic classification. The organization of rock bodies into units on the basis of their lithologic properties and their stratigraphic relations.GSSP for Zanclean Stage Definition: The base of the Pliocene Series and the Zanclean Stage is defined as the base of the Trubi Formation. The age of the Zanclean and Pliocene GSSP at the base of the stage is 5.33 Ma in the orbitally calibrated time scale, and lies within the lowermost reversed episode of the Gilbert Chron (C3n.4r), below the Thvera normal subchron.The Anthropocene is intriguing scientifically, fascinating intellectually, and deeply disturbing politically, socially, economically, and ethically. We must learn how to co-exist sustainably with the rest of nature in what is emerging as a new planetary state. To do so, we must first understand what "Anthropocene" means in all its dimensions.The International Commission on Stratigraphy are pleased to announce that the Kimmeridgian GSSP, identifying the base of the middle stage of the Upper Jurassic Series within the Jurassic System, has been unanimously and formally ratified by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The Kimmeridgian Stage is named after the tiny ...Stratigraphy. The Permian through Jurassic strata of the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah demonstrate the principles of stratigraphy. Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers ( strata) and layering (stratification). It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks .The proposal received unanimous support from all the voting members of the International Commission on Stratigraphy . It was then recommended to the International Union of Geological Sciences Executive Committee who also voted unanimously to ratify the proposal. The GSSP will be placed 1.25 ± 0.01 m below the base of Bed 36 in the foreshore at ...Formal subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch: a discussion paper by a Working Group of INTIMATE (Integration of ice-core marine and terrestrial records) and the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (International Commission on Stratigraphy). Journal of Quaternary Science 27, 649-659.The Geologic Time Scale 2004 book was under the auspices of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), and many of the component chapters were written by the chairs of the subcommissions.This group has been very active, inspiring many workers even from outside the traditional geosciences to participate in the concept and its definition. Since 2016, the recipient has generously donated his time as Secretary General of the ICS and he continues to be an international leader of Quaternary geology and stratigraphy. This year's ICS ...Comisia Internațională pentru Stratigrafie, cunoscută la nivel internațional sub denumirea în limba engleză International Commission on Stratigraphy și adesea prescurtată în ICS, este un subcomitet permanent al „ Uniunii Internaționale a Științelor Geologice (IUGS) și se ocupă de probleme la scară globală legate de stratigrafie, geologie și geocronologie.The International Commission on Stratigraphy (www.stratigraphy.org) is the largest and oldest constituent scientific body in IUGS. Guidelines for defining global chronostratigraphic units were established (e.g., Cowie et al., 1986 and enhanced by …Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification (ISSC) of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), a member of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), publishes a series of ...The ICS is the largest and oldest constituent scientific body in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) - International Commission on StratigraphyFormal subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch . It is a pleasure to announce that the proposals for the subdivision of the Holocene Series/Epoch into three stages/ages and their corresponding subseries/subepochs by the International Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (ISQS) (a subcommission of the International Commission on Stratigraphy - ICS) have been ratified unanimously by the ...Phanerozoic Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Neogene Paleogene Upper Lower Mesozoic Cretaceous Triassic ...The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) utilises benchmark chronostratigraphies to divide geologic time. The reliability of these records is fundamental to understand past global change.About SQS The Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) is a constituent body of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the largest scientific organisation within the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). It is also the only body concerned with stratigraphy on a global scale for the whole geological column.About Us. The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian Period, about 358.9 ± 0.4 Ma, to the beginning of the Permian Period, about 298.9 ± 0.2 Ma. The Carboniferous System has been subdivided into two subsystems, the Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian, and contains seven global stages.International Commission on Stratigraphy. 1,509 likes · 5 talking about this. Home of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, the basis for the International Geologic Time Scale....TITLE OF CONSTITUENT BODY International Subcommission on Silurian Stratigraphy ISSS Submitted by: Rong Jia-yu, Chairman, ISSS Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 39# East Beijing Road Nanjing, 210008, P R China Telephone: 025-83282169, Telefax: 025 ...A network of over 100 Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) is being established by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. This network of sites, about 60% of which are already ratified, relates to all the stage, system and series boundaries of the geological column and thus provides the fundamental basis for the ...When it comes to buying or selling a home, one of the most important decisions you’ll make is choosing a realtor. With so many options available, it can be difficult to determine which realtor will provide you with the best service and valu...... International Commission on Stratigraphy. Here it's reproduced in greyscale, but to see it in all its colourful glory, go to: www.stratigraphy.org/ICSchart ...The International Commission on Stratigraphy , sometimes unofficially referred to as the "International Stratigraphic Commission", is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphical, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.The GSSP section is located above the upper Coumiac Quarry, near Cessenon, Montagne Noire, France. The section is situated in the southeastern Montagne Noire, Department Hérault, District of Cessenon (topographic sheet 1:25 000, No. 2544 E, Murviellès-Béziers; Lambert's coordinates: x=130 375, y=658 55). It is adjacent to the ...Naming one representative place is the AWG’s last big task before handing matters over to a senior group of scientists in the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the timekeepers of Earth’s history.The International Commission on Stratigraphy, or ICS, is the global governing body that formally names geological eras, associating each rock layer with a specific stretch of time.Modern international geologic time scale. The establishment of the IUGS in 1961 and acceptance of the Commission on Stratigraphy (applied in 1965) to become a member commission of IUGS led to the founding of the ICS. One of the primary objectives of the ICS is "the establishment, publication and revision of the ICS International ...The International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy (ISJS) comprises an international group of scientists from universities, geological surveys, research organisations, industry and museums who conduct scientific research on strata of Jurassic age ( c. 201 - 143 million years ago). In order to advance the global understanding of the ...It is not a formal stratigraphical code; for this the International Stratigraphic Guide (Salvador 1994), the North American Stratigraphic Code (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature 1983) or the on-line version on the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) website can be consulted. The aim is to encourage a common ...Geologic Time Scale 2020 (2 volume set) contains contributions from 80+ leading scientists who present syntheses in an easy-to-understand format that includes numerous color charts, maps and photographs. In addition to detailed overviews of chronostratigraphy, evolution, geochemistry, sequence stratigraphy and planetary geology, the GTS2020 volumes have separate chapters …The International Stratigraphic Commission, and the North American Stratigraphic Code provide complete definitions and rules for their usage. Magnetostratigraphy. Earth's magnetic field is generated by a hot (4000-5000 o C), fluid-like, iron-nickel rich outer core that moves slowly around a solid iron inner core. The shape of the magnetic ...the Stratigraphy Commission of the Geological Society of London (Zalasiewicz et al ., 2008) leading, in 2009, to the establishment of the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG)Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification of IUGS International Commission on Stratigraphy ; Amos Salvador, editor. — 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographic references and index. ISBN 0-8137-7401-2 1. Geology, Stratigraphic. I. Salvador, Amos. II. Geological Society of America. III. Title. QE645.I57 1994 551.7’0012—dc20 94-13276 CIP ...Chair: David A. T. Harper. Professor, Earth Sciences and Principal Van Mildert College, Durham University Durham DH1 3LE, UK Tel: +44-1913347143 E-mail: [email protected] ideas still underpin modern stratigraphy which is governed by The International Commission on Stratigraphy. Its primary objective is to precisely define global units (systems, series, and stages) of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart that, in turn, are the basis for the units (periods, epochs, and age) of the International ...Stratigraphy is the journal of record for the North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature, established in 2004. ... Program expedition and has participated in over 35 land-based drilling projects on both the national and international level. She is on the Board of Directors for the International Nannoplankton Association Foundation ...The Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) – which is a constituent body of t he International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the largest scientific organization in the International Union of Geological Sciences – has been developing a formal definition of this the Anthropocene. According to the SQS, there are various phenomena ...The IUGS International Commission on Stratigraphy is the body responsible for coordinating the selection and approval of GSSPs of the units of the International Standard Global Chronostratigraphic (Geochronologic) Scale represented in the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (ICC).A stratigraphic unit is a volume of rock of identifiable origin and relative age range that is defined by the distinctive and dominant, ... International Commission on Stratigraphy Stratigraphic Guide This page was last edited on 2 July 2023, at 22:14 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons ...The SQS currently has four Working Groups the task of which is the: In progress - Formalisation of Global Stratotype section and Points (GSSP) for the Lower/Middle and for the Middle/Upper subseries/subepoch boundaries of the Pleistocene Series/Epoch. The formal nomenclature for the subseries/subepoch divisions of the Pleistocene will be ...* Dates from the International Commission on Stratigraphy's International Stratigraphic Chart, 2008. David Polly, Rob Guralnick, and Allen Collins all worked on the earliest versions of this page; Brian Speer made revisions and broke the single page into several pages, 3/6/1997; Sarah Rieboldt updated the pages to reflect the Geological Society ...Lithology and depth inputs in the modelling came from the drilling, and stratigraphic ages were taken from Gradstein et al. (2004) and International Commission on Stratigraphy (Cohen et al. 2014 ...The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) has produced an electronic version of the international standard Cenozoic-Mesozoic-Paleozoic bio-magneto-sequence, time-scale charts. This JAVA package, called TS-Creator©, can be freely downloaded from the ICS website (www.stratigraphy.org).Abstract. The Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) of the Subcommission of Quaternary Stratigraphy of the International Commission on Stratigraphy is moving toward recommending that the start of a formally designated ‘Anthropocene’ epoch be placed in the middle-to-late 1900s. This article summarizes three objections to this possible action. ---1

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